Climate Change – Part III – What can be done?

With the veritable amount of evidence that has been laid out before us, why is it that people aren’t concerned about global warming? Despite scientific consensus on the subject, some people think global warming isn’t happening at all. There are several reasons for this, and they cover various overlying and conflicting themes on global communication, and an incentive towards environmental action.

Beginning with the common lay-person, a popular speculation is formulated in the form of this question: If simple forecasts can’t get next week’s weather right, how is it that we can trust the predictions that have been made on the basis for decades or centuries from now?

The answer to this is quite simple, and once again highlights the necessity towards scientific communication, and public education. Weather and climate are not the same. Weather relates to individual, and day-to-day changes in the atmosphere; climate is the statistical average of such changes. Weather is short-term, and of a chaotic nature, thus making it inherently unpredictable beyond a few days. Meanwhile, climate is long-term average weather, controlled by the composition of the atmosphere, and is thus more predictable on the time-scales considered.  A simple analogy is provided at the Climate Communication website,

While it is impossible to predict the age at which any particular man will die, we can say with high confidence that the average age of death for men in industrialized countries is about 75. The individual is analogous to weather, whereas the statistical average is analogous to climate.

Stepping beyond the individual, we encroach upon a global dialogue between, and within political and scientific institutions. While most scientists recognize the phenomenon that is global warming, there still remain a few who believe that there is nothing to be worried about. The latter argue that the Earth is more resistant to climate change than proposed. Many of the consequential changes are, in their opinion, not disastrous, and that cutting down the emission of greenhouse gases may result in economic damage far more potent than any of the effects of global warming.

The uncertainty that exists within the scientific community has been carried over to the political realm. Skeptics use it to argue for postponing action, while contenders point out that there are various other facets of life that require action in the face of uncertainty, such as buying health insurance. The IPCC has also pointed out that confronting a large-scale task such as climate change will not occur in an economic dissolution. As quoted from the 2014 report by the IPCC’s Working Group III,

Climate policy intersects with other societal goals, creating the possibility of co-benefits or adverse side effects. These intersections, if well-managed, can strengthen the basis for undertaking climate action.

Ultimately, what can we do about it? It isn’t possible to simply “stop” climate change. Even if we turned off every fuel-burning machine on Earth, the planet would warm at least another 0.5 degrees Celsius as the climate adjusts to the greenhouse gases that already have been emitted. Nevertheless, progressing toward the future, we can still make efforts in decreasing activities that may help propagate and positively reinforce global warming.

On a local level, we can do this basically by not using as much of the stuff that creates greenhouse gases as well as using less energy. Electricity governs much of the modern world, and much of the electricity that operates many of the devices in our homes comes from a power plant, which most likely burns fossil fuels to generate that power. The simple action of turning off lights when they are not in use, and using a fan or an air-conditions only when necessary can help. Similar initiatives can be taken in the view of using public transportation, efficient recycling and waste management, reforestation etc. Beyond all of this, we need to develop non-fossil fuel energy sources. Hydro-electric power, solar power, hydrogen engines, and fuel cells could help in this initiative towards a global change in energy sources.

In conclusion, much of this is easier said than done but that doesn’t mean we should give up. Given the global nature of the climate problem, we all have a hand in contributing to the solution, and in confronting the necessary alternatives and options we must also be willing to face agreements and disagreements in faith of positive communication. The real power to enact significant change rests in the hands of those who devise national and global policies. International and scientific collaboration on technology sharing, effective communication and education of the public supplemented by an efficient transition toward alternative, and green-energy initiatives would help make a difference in the long run.

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The environment’s role in our survival, and the importance of its preservation is common sense. There is nothing wrong in creating a better world. We have a moral responsibility in protecting and handing the planet over to the next generation. 

Climate Change – Part II – Consequential Symptoms

The Symptoms

So far, we have had a taste of the basic science behind climate change or global warming. Now, it’s time to look at the consequences. Let’s dive right in.

There is a lot that is happening now which may serve as prelude to what may happen in the future. Briefly, the major consequences of global warming would involve: extreme heat (a warmer Earth), extensive floods and droughts (but not everywhere), a big melt (say goodbye to glaciers), rising oceans and stormy weather (friendly neighborhood hurricanes and other storms), as well as ravaged ecosystems and agriculture (a price for life inclusive of all species on Earth).

Rising Temperatures 

Much of the effects of global warming comes down to discussing the effects of an average rise in the planet’s temperature. Remember, small changes in climate can equate to major effects around the world.  The “Ice Age” was caused by an average drop of just 5 degrees Celsius over a time period of thousands of years. So, what can we say about the opposite scenario? What will happen in the Earth’s average temperatures increases a few degrees in just a few hundred years?

Graph of global mean temperature from 1880 to 2009 (NASA).

Note the shorter time span. Why? Well, as humans, we have had quite the impact on the planet. Picking up around the era of industrialization, we have come far, and in our development, we have meted out a measurable influence in the biosphere. Global warming is a significant increase in the Earth’s climatic temperature over a short period of time due to human activity. We are living in the Anthropocene epoch (the term itself is yet to be deemed official).  The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, thanks to the heavy utilization of fossil fuels.

This is a big deal. To put things in perspective, natural changes in climate would follow rises, and falls in temperature amounting to 1 degree Celsius over thousands of years. The Earth’s climate can change due to volcanic activity, plant life, solar radiation, and atmospheric chemistry. Significant evidence from the IPCC now shows our role in accelerating these changes over shorter time periods.

Glaciers and Ice Shelves 

One of the most publicized effects of global warming is the melting of glaciers and ice shelves. This is quite a problem as ice plays a prominent role in reflecting solar radiation away from Earth. Thus, the loss of large surfaces areas of ice could accelerate global warming. The chain of effects, mentioned earlier, pretty much follow in response.

An immediate result of melting glaciers would be the rise in sea levels. As glaciers  melt, they are adding to the water already in the Earth’s oceans. While the rise in sea level may be modest, amounting to an inch or two, this can still cause various problems, namely the flooding of low-lying coastal areas. The scenario is particularly dire if the West Antarctic Ice sheet were to melt. This would push sea levels up to 10 meters, and many coastal areas would completely disappear.

Research predictions indicate rising sea levels up to 22 inches by the year 2100. As of now, the main big melt is occurring in the North Pole where the ice is not as nearly thick as at the South Pole. Nevertheless, we cannot ignore the possibility of a summation of gradual increases in temperature to slowly, but surely, affect all corners of the planet.

A poster child for the consequences of climate change, the nation of Maldives is facing a rise in sea levels and the bleaching of its coral reefs. 

The Age of Storms

With a rise in the overall temperature of the ocean, tropical storms and hurricanes will increase in force. This is most evident in the North Atlantic where ocean temperatures have risen through long-term warming, and the cyclical nature of Atlantic currents. Think of it as a cyclic storm generator. In fact, the tropics as a whole are experiencing a general trend towards ocean warming that follows global warming.

Now, despite these projected trends, one cannot tie any single devastating hurricane or other weather event directly to global warming. This was a popular opinion when Hurricane Katrina ravaged New Orleans in 2005. While the devastation, and damage caused to the city were horrible, it is well understood that Katrina’s impact also takes into consideration the storm’s track, the weaknesses of levees, and many other factors. Nonetheless, the verdict is that for the storms to come in the future, there will be an overall strengthening of winds and rainfall.

A Changing of the Seasons 

While global warming will cause a certain lengthening of the seasons, its most devastating effects, the ones that are most difficult to predict, involve its impact on the world’s biosphere. Changing seasons may benefit certain parts of the world, while other temperate parts of the world would face long droughts, and a general decrease in precipitation.

This will be particularly influential to the ecosystems that currently thrive on the planet. Ecosystems are delicate, and even the slightest change can kill off several species. Furthermore, ecosystems are interconnected, and so what may begin as a simple symptom may develop into a chain reaction that will ravage the biosphere.

Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change   James E. M. Watson, Sept 2013 Nature 

Life, in essence, will once again become a competition revolved around a species’ ability to adapt to the shifts in climate, though it is highly likely that many will become extinct. The most drastic example of change, in light of global warming, is actually displayed on the documentary Planet Earth where we are shown how the tundra in Northern Canada has turned mostly to forest.

Last, but not least, much of this will have a human cost. It is hard to quantify the exact amount but we can expect a greater number of medical occurrences involving heat-strokes, and other heat related trauma. Poor, and underdeveloped nations will suffer the worst effects as they do not have the financial resources to deal with the problems that follow. Prolonged droughts may lead to desertification of areas, and widespread starvation. Decreasing precipitation would limit crop growth, and coastal flooding would result in a spread of water-borne illnesses. All in all, the world’s economy will take a wallop, and so will the condition of life on Earth.

It Does Not Compute!

So, after all is said and done, why is it that some people still aren’t concerned about global warming? Despite a scientific consensus on the subject, many believe global warming to be a farce. In Part III, we shall bring this discussion series on climate change to a conclusion by addressing quite possibly the two most crucial elements of the crisis: communication, and the incentive towards action.

Passage Of Time…

Gazing out the window, I observe the tempestuous motion of clouds in the sky. The chill of a wet breeze strikes my skin as I swing along with the rhythmic motion of the trees in my neighborhood, dancing to the progressive wind. Relaxing in the comforting solitude of my humble abode, my reflections render a view across time, allowing me to travel back, and revisit the nostalgic memories of the past that led me to my current life.

A journey that began in a small corner of the world, I awakened my dreams at the sight of the luminous lamps of fire that lit up the night sky of my hometown. Contemplating on the questions that beset my curiosity, I stumbled forward, on and on, desperate to seek answers. Soaring upon the wings of my ambitions, I ventured forward into the unknown, finding strength in the arms of three beings without whom I would not be the man I am today (Mom, Dad, Sis, I love you).

Bidding farewell to our last summer, I would pave my own path in life, meeting various personalities along the way, experiences with frequent beginnings, and ends. Reinventing myself over, and over, I eventually discovered my grounds in who I wished to be in the place of another’s heart, completing a journey that brought me full circle to the little bits of everything I found in her, and appreciated in life (Thank you, Leina).

Time waits for no one…and so I wish to fall briefly into the wrenching melancholic, and bittersweet nostalgia of all that has come to be in my life so far. To the friends, and family I have met, and who have supported me along the way I give you my deep-felt thanks. Though we may be distances apart, seeking our own ends in life, our memories together will forever remain in my heart.

Now, as the tides of time push me forward, I find my resolve in the joy of our times together, and remembering those happy days we shared. Embracing the present that is built upon those memories, I find my reason to smile, thankful for all that I have been given in life. Alighting on my 26th birthday, I look toward a new, and grand horizon of adventures to follow. Thus, I’m led forward by the me of tomorrow, who holds my hand, and filled with dreams of the future, but supported all the way, by the me of yesterday, who holds all of our memories together, and follows right along…in what has been my life, or rather a passage of time…

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Cherish the memories of the past, Embrace the present, and happily Anticipate the future…Time may progress inevitably, but it is our choice to make this life, a moment that transcends eternity…

Climate Change – Part I – The Basics

Introduction

Climate change is a global issue that has wedded science to politics while simultaneously transcending the social responsibilities held by both institutions. A polarizing subject in many ways, climate change is considered as one of the most daunting challenges humanity currently faces; at its crux is an initiative towards global communication, and environmental responsibility.

To this day, there remains a schism between the public, and the scientific community when it comes to understanding climate change, and what it essentially means for our world. In a manner that follows the development of various other issues over the course of history, climate change highlights a certain measure of conflict in science, and ignorance.

Investing the time to learn the basics can prove the difference in being knowledgeable and informed or confused and manipulated. This is particularly crucial as climate change is a phenomenon that has wide implications to civilization, and overtly emphasizes the need for humanity to collaborate with each other in tackling the problem.

In this three-part series, we will address various facets of this issue ranging from the basics of the science behind the phenomenon as well as the consequential symptoms  or effects of climate change for the present, and the future. We will conclude by discussing the options that we must consider in our transition to achieve progress.

Let’s begin!

Dissecting Weather and Climate

Le’ts review the difference between weather, and climate. Simply, weather is local, and short-term while climate is long-term, and doesn’t relate to one single location. More precisely, the climate of an area defines the average weather conditions in the given region over a long period of time. The time period being considered generally involves changes taking place over tens of thousands of years. So, whenever we pass by a few winters that aren’t as cold as usual, it does not necessitate a change in climate. Such events are rather anomalies that don’t represent any long-term change.

Moving forward in our discussion, it is also imperative that we don’t underestimate the effects of small changes in climate. To put in perspective, the “Ice Age,” often talked about by scientists involved a world where the Earth’s average temperature was only 5 degrees Celsius cooler than modern day temperature averages. Small changes in climate can equate to major effects around the world. 

Climate Change or Global Warming

We often hear the phrases climate change, and global warming used interchangeably in describing climate transitions but there is a subtle difference. In the early 20th century, scientists used the term climate change when writing about events such as ice ages. But once scientists recognized the specific risks posed by human-produced greenhouse gases on the Earth’s climate, they needed a term to describe it.

Wallace Broecker’s paper in the journal Science, in 1975, entitled “Climate change: Are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?” introduced the word global warming into the public lexicon.

Soon enough, the phrase global warming gained currency, and the term global change emerged as a way to describe all modes of large-scale impact on the planet, including issues such as the Antarctic ozone hole.

The planet as a whole is warming, but scientists prefer the term global change or global climate change. The reasoning behind this is that global warming can be interpreted as a uniform effect (warming everywhere on Earth), while a few regions may in fact cool slightly even if the planet were to warm up. In fact, it is a popular opinion that climate change sounds less frightening to the ear than global warming; the latter though catches more attention in the public eye. A few scientists, and activists also prefer to use global warming to imply human involvement in the process of describing climate transitions.

So, is the planet really warming up?

The short answer: YES! After laboriously working through a century’s worth of temperature records, various independent teams of scientists have converged on a rise of 0.8 degrees Celsius in the average surface air temperature of Earth when comparing the periods from 2003 – 2012 to 1850 – 1900. While this degree of warming may not sound like a big deal, it does make a big difference when it is in place everyday. Small changes can become amplified into bigger ones. Any warming can serve as a base from which heat waves can become worse. The effects are particularly pronounced in certain locations like the Arctic which has experienced an overall warming. Apart from the numbers, there’s a wealth of environmental evidence to bolster the case in favor of the Earth’s warming up. Without going too much into detail,

(1) Ice on land, and at sea has melted dramatically in many areas outside of interior Antarctica and Greenland.

(2) A lengthening of the growing season around much of the Northern Hemisphere.

(3) The migration of various forms of life, including mosquitoes, birds, and other creatures to higher altitudes, and latitudes due to the increasing warmth. Likewise, the migration of many forms of marine life moving poleward (the shift in ranges is 10 times the average for land-based species).

Other observations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlight the warming trend of the last 50 years being nearly the double of the last 100 years; a vast increase in ocean temperature to greater depths (the oceans absorb 80% of the heat of Earth’s climate system); increasing droughts; increased precipitation in eastern regions of the Americas, and northern regions of Europe, and Asia; drying trends in Africa, and the Mediterranean etc.

How Global Warming Works? 

Global warming is caused by an increase in the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is not bad on its own, and is in fact a natural circumstance of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is also the reason why the Earth is warm enough for life to survive.

The greenhouse effect, in essence, involves a play of energy balance on the Earth’s. When sunlight reaches our planet, 30% of its gets reflected or scattered back to space by clouds, dust, or the Earth’s surface. More than 20% of the sunlight is absorbed in the atmosphere, mainly by clouds, and water vapor. Lastly, almost 50% is absorbed by the Earth’s surface including land, forests, pavement, oceans etc.

Now, all this energy doesn’t stay permanently on the Earth. If it did, the Earth would literally be on fire. In fact, the Earth’s oceans, and land masses re-radiate the heat, some of which makes it into space. Most of it though is absorbed by clouds, and greenhouse gases which in turn radiate the heat back to the surface, and some out to space. Since the heat doesn’t make it out through the Earth’s atmosphere, the planet becomes warmer. It is basically an energy imbalance scenario where there is more energy coming through the atmosphere, than that leaving the Earth.

The two main components of air include nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (20%) gas, both of which aren’t efficient in absorbing radiation from the Earth due to their two-atom structure. On the other hand, other gases with three or more atoms can capture energy far out of their scant presence. These are the greenhouse gases, the ones that keep Earth inhabitable. That’s all well, and good, but the same gases also warm the Earth. The more greenhouse gases we add to the atmosphere, the more our planet warms. The major players involved include: Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide,  Methane, and to a lesser extent, Water vapor.

 Greenhouse Gases: What’s Happening? 

The greenhouse effect is driven by naturally occurring substances in the atmosphere. This is predicated by a necessity for balance referring to the radiation cycles of the Earth mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, since the Industrial Revolution, humans have been pouring huge amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere thus tipping the balance toward an amplified warming of the planet.

Carbon dioxide makes up less than 0.04% of the Earth’s atmosphere, most of which is due to early volcanic activity in the planet. Today, we are pumping huge amounts of the gas into the atmosphere as the gas is produced when fossil fuels are burned, as well as when people, and animals breathe, and when plants decompose. Extra carbon dioxide results in more energy absorption, and an overall increase in the Earth’s atmosphere. In fact, the average surface temperature of the Earth has gone from 14.5 degrees Celsius in 1860 to 15.3 degrees Celsius in 1980.

Nitrous oxide is another important green house gas, and while we don’t release great amounts of this gas through human activity, nitrous oxide absorbs much more energy than carbon dioxide. For example, the use of nitrogen fertilizer on crops releases nitrous oxide in great quantities.

Methane is a combustible gas, and the main component of natural gas. It also occurs naturally through organic material decomposition. Other man-made processes that produce methane include: extraction from coal, digestive gases in large livestock, bacteria in rice paddies, and garbage decomposition etc. Like its fellow compatriot greenhouse gases, methane also absorbs infrared energy, and keeps up the heat on Earth.

Apart from their devastating effects, it takes a long time for the planet to naturally recycle these various gases. For example, a typical molecule of carbon dioxide can stay airborne for more than a century. Thus, greenhouse gases have both a potent, and a long-standing impact on the Earth’s ecosystems. A few other gases that make up for the rest of the greenhouse players include the Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), water vapor, ozone etc. Water vapor is particularly interesting, as it isn’t a very strong greenhouse gas, but makes up for this in sheer abundance. As global temperatures rise, oceans, and lakes release more water vapor, up to 7% more for every degree Celsius of warming, which adds to the warming cycle.

What’s next? 

In conclusion, the mechanisms involved in climate change, or global warming, are largely positive feedbacks that amplify the warming of the planet: the evaporation of water from the oceans doubles the impact of carbon dioxide increase, and melting sea ice reduces the amount of sunlight reflected to space etc. While not all feedbacks are certain, it is a grounded truth that the planet has to constantly readjust to the changes we make in our environment, in the case of global warming, the consistent addition of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. So far, I have laid the  basic groundwork for the symptoms we can expect to see, as a consequence of global warming, in our environment. Moving on in Part II, we will consider those changes in greater detail, and what they entail for the future of our planet.

Sorry for the wait…

Hi everyone,

Ideally, I would have had a blog post up by now. Unfortunately, I was taken unawares by a sudden bout of sickness that left me out of action for the last week.

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While it has been a frustrating experience, being bedridden came with its fair share of perks, namely, a lot of reading, and brainstorming (I was physically out of it, but for some reason, my mental faculties were whizzing as usual).

Now that I have recovered to a good measure, I will have the first of a three-part series of posts discussing “Climate Change” online by next weekend. I intend to use this format such that I may be able to cover a wide spectrum of issues, concerning the topic, within the scientific, political, and socio-economic regimes. The goal is to provide for well-deserved communication, and education on a highly controversial subject that is inherently a simple, but significant, circumstance of our interaction with nature.

I will also post a book review on Luc Ferry’s, A Brief History of Thought, which I finished reading recently. Coupled with my efforts to finish my second book, I’m looking forward to a busy week of writing. I intend to move towards pre-production beginning with the necessary illustrations for the book. The goal is to have it published by the end of this summer (at the latest, fingers crossed).

Meanwhile, I shall continue to fight the good fight as I juggle my temporary term of unemployment with my academic endeavors, and my writing. It is quite difficult to keep a regular working schedule, especially when I’m spread thin over various fronts, but hey that is life! As excited as I am now to publish my second book, I can’t wait to get started on the subsequent writing projects I have in store. Similarly, there is a lot to look forward to in the near future, not to mention “evolving” another year  in two weeks’ time. This post was to just inform all of you that I’m still here. Once again, I apologize for the delay!

I will see you all again next weekend!

Adventures in Drawing – A New Beginning

Previously on “Adventures in Drawing,” I discussed several matters of art. I specifically placed emphasis on the three valuable lessons of learning to actively see thingsthe value of repetition, and drawing what one sees, not what one knows.

The second half of the drawing course followed the application of said rules with a series of projects. I had the wonderful opportunity to test my skills with various mediums from charcoal, graphite, and conté sticks. Along for the ride came an assortment of healthy drawing techniques I had learned earlier involving the use of guidelines, the ability to delineate depth and active perception in objects, as well as blind contour drawing etc. All in all, I thoroughly enjoyed the opportunity to test my skills with the various media (Figures 1-2).

Figure 1. Man’s best friend (using charcoal, and graphite). 

 

Having completed the course, I can certainly say that my knowledge, and library of resources pertaining to drawing has grown exponentially. If there is a takeaway message from my experiences so far, it would be the following: simply put, anyone can be an artist. All you need is an HB pencil, a sketchbook, and a little bit of incentive. Most importantly, practice makes perfect.

In my opinion, I view drawing, and art, in general, as a personal interpretation of one’s environment, and imagination; a realm of infinite possibilities. The uniqueness factor of one’s works is dictated not through the judgment of external critics but rather one’s own individuality. Thus, you have nothing to fear in the criticism of your own doodles. We are all artists in our own measure. As Mason Cooley put it, “Art begins with imitation, and ends in innovation.”

Figure 2. Unfinished swimmer (using conté sticks)

With every passing day, I get closer to achieving the same with my artwork. Once again, I’ve learned that practice makes perfect. (On a side note, it also helps to have an encouraging partner, especially one who goes out of their way to buy you a legit Japanese manga kit but I digress.) If I could briefly summarize the steps that I have taken so far in my journey in drawing, and that I wish to share to my fellow aspiring artists, they would be:

(1) Start with doodles, and doodle frequently. Sketch whatever you wish to sketch. Freedom of imagination, and action is important in drawing.

(2) Get a few guide books on the side, or even better, just parse through the overwhelming history of artists, and their works that we can readily find information about on the WWW (world-wide-web).

(3) Trying a short, and supplementary course is highly beneficial too. Learning drawing also involves the communication of ideas, and techniques. (Check out the arts center in your city. If you don’t have one, Udemy is a wonderful online resource for awesome, and cheap courses. And if that doesn’t work, then it’s even more simple, learn from nature, and become your own artist. There’s no limit to human creativity, and imagination.)

(4) Aggregate the lessons you learn in infinitesimal steps, and integrate them toward a full learning experience.

Moving on from here, I intend to eagerly pursue my dream of becoming a mangaka in the future. For those among my readers who are avid comic fans, and are particularly interested in making their own comics, I highly suggest the constructive anatomy, and figure drawing books written by Burne Hogarth, and George Bridgman (shown below) to get you started.

But after all is said, and done, remember to relax, and just have fun with it!

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Transitions

Life is all about transitions. One moment, we find ourselves latched on to something, and the next instant there is something new around the corner that catches our attention. I have had to deal with my fair share of minute, but influential transitions owing to my absence over the last few weeks; ranging from decisions I have had to make on my academic career in pursuit of a PhD (which has incidentally become a wild-goose chase for funding opportunities), to my exodus in obtaining a driver’s license, and all the way to alighting upon the final stages of content editing my second book (Agent X)!

All of which brings me here today, back to my pensive reverie, during a stormy overcast in Edmonton that beckons me to take up the “keyboard” again, and get back to the blog posts I have been planning for a while. So without further ado, this is what we have to look forward to in the coming days!

Beginning with another recap of my “Adventures in Drawing” I will come full-circle as I complete my Drawing 101 course, and present a few more tricks I have learned over the past month.

Following this, we will shift gears, and in lieu with the current political “climate” (particularly with reference to the recent proceedings at the Paris Accords), I will provide a report on climate change, approaching the topic from a scientific, political, and socio-economic perspective.

I will also add another chapter to my review of Carl Sagan’s “Dragons of Eden,” as we explore the mechanisms of the human brain including the R-complex, the Limbic System, and the Neocortex.

Lastly, following up on a request from a reader, I will provide a learner’s review of Bitcoins, a crypto-currency, and modern digital payment system!

So, all in all, look forward to a good number of updates on the blog, and some healthy reading over the coming days everyone!

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